Selective mutism is a consistent failure to speak in certain situations, such as school, even when the child can speak in other situations, such as at home with close family members. This can interfere with school, work and social functioning.
Phobias are characterized by extreme fear (and/or panic attacks) when exposed to a specific object or situation. People with phobias will avoid the object/situation or endure it with great distress.
Separation anxiety disorder is characterized by excessive concern regarding separation from home or from attachment figures for fear that something bad will happen to self or parents when separated. Children may refuse or be reluctant to sleep alone, go to school, attend play dates, sleepovers, camp, or be left with a babysitter.
Social anxiety disorder involves high levels of anxiety, fear and avoidance of social situations due to feelings of embarrassment, self-consciousness, and concern about being judged or viewed negatively by
Generalized anxiety disorder includes persistent and excessive worry about activities or events — even ordinary, routine issues. The worry is usually out of proportion to the actual situation, is difficult to control, and interferes with one's ability to focus.
Panic disorder involves repeated episodes of sudden, unexpected panic attacks (feelings of intense anxiety and fear or terror) and persistent worry about having additional panic attacks or the consequences of the panic attacks (e.g., worry that it is a sign of cardiac problems).
Agoraphobia is anxiety about, and avoidance of, places or situations in which a person fears feeling trapped, unable to escape, or embarrassed by symptoms of anxiety/panic.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by a disabling pattern of repetitive, senseless thoughts (obsessions) and behaviors or rituals (compulsions) that are difficult to control and produce extreme anxiety.
A panic attack is not a disorder but may accompany other disorders. A panic attack is a discrete period of intense fear or discomfort, in which four (or more) of the following symptoms developed abruptly and reached a peak within minutes:
- Palpitations, racing heart
- Trembling or shaking
- Shortness of breath or feeling smothered
- Feeling of choking
- Chest pain or discomfort
- Nausea or abdominal distress
- Feeling dizzy, unsteady, lightheaded, or faint
- De-realization (feelings of unreality)
- Depersonalization (feeling detached)
- Fear of losing control or going insane
- Sense of impending death/doom
- Numbness or tingling sensations
- Chills or hot flashes